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【语法】如何备考GMAT语法部分?

来源:朗阁教育14-04-03编辑:PMC_ivy0人看过

13 版官方指南OG 中Sentence Correction 句子改错部分也就是俗称的语法部分的考查内容和要求,13 版OG 中新增语法题举例分析,以及相应的新GMAT 语法备考策略。

13 版官方指南OG 中Sentence Correction 句子改错部分也就是俗称的语法部分的考查内容和要求,13 版OG 中新增语法题举例分析,以及相应的新GMAT 语法备考策略。
1.13 版OG 语法部分考查内容和要求
相比12 版OG 中的语法部分总纲(Directions),13 版中的对应内容没有任何变化,依然是考查标准书面英语(Standard written English) 运用过程中三方面的能力,正确性表达(Correct expression), 有效性表达(Effective expression) 以及恰当措词(Proper diction)。
根据OG,正确性表达考查的是主谓搭配(noun-verb agreement), 代词指代及指代一致(noun-pronoun agreement, pronoun consistency, pronoun case), 动词时态(verb tense sequence), 正确修饰语(properly formed modifiers),固定搭配(idiomatic expressions),清晰一致表达(consistent expressions),平行对称结构(parallel construction)。实际上,正确性问题是语法的基础性问题,或者叫做原则性问题,一旦发生正确性表达错误,那么就属于必然错。比如说,be responsible of 出现在选项中该选项一定错,因为这不符合表达习惯,应该是be responsible for。
有效性表达考查的是在基本语法正确的前提下即正确表达的前提下,进行清晰和简洁表达(clear and concise expression)。清晰和简洁表达并不意味着有最少数量的词的选项或者有最简单词的选项就一定是正确答案,而是意味着,在正确选项中没有多余的词和不必要的复杂的词。可见,有效性问题考查的是更高表达能力,即如何做到清晰和简洁。事实上,经过对历年GMAT语法真题和OG 上的真题仔细研究,不难发现,清晰表达应该理解为把原文的意思尽可能清晰地表达出来,即忠实原文,但是在某些情况下( 大约10% 的
题目),原文意思发生错误,此时不能GMAT 考试要点趋势分析再忠于原文,必须修正原文的意思,才能将意思表达正确。简洁表达应该理解为避免语义重复以及精简结构从优,比如选项中出现whether or not,语法对,但是语义重复,依然算错误,因为可以用更加简洁的whether。再比如两个选项分别出现compare A with B 和make comparisons of A with B,语法都对,但是compare 明显简洁。
恰当措词考查的是标准书面英语中的选词,在具体做题过程中,需要比较5 个选项用词是否准确,是否适合上下文语境。因此,措词问题和有效性表达一样,考查的也是更高表达能力。错误选词一般总结为以下类型:笨拙结构,口语化表达,歧义表达,不标准表达。比如说比较经典的笨拙结构是There be 后跟抽象名词,口语化表达比如 maybe, do it 都是错的,合适的措词应该改为更加书面的probably 或者perhaps,do so。歧义表达比如说 become increasingly successful,应该改成become more and more successful。不标准表达比如in that,这个词组太正式太夸张(too formal and stilted),应该用because,再比如so as to 这个词组,不符合书面英语的表达习惯( not idiomatically used),应该用标准规范的in order to。正确选词一般指的是优先结构,比如连词结构优于对应的介词结构not..but…/rather than 优于instead of ,再比如(al)though 优于despite/in spite of。
2.13 版OG 中新增语法题举例分析
经过对比12 版OG 和13 版OG 的语法部分练习题(Practice questions),可以发现,新版OG 中语法题总量没有变,依然是140 道题。删去25 道旧题,增25 道新题,新增题题号分别是1,2,4,7,9,15,19,26,35,38,40,48,56,65,68,71,74,79,87,97,107,111,114,132,138。
我们来举前3 道题来分析。首先看第1 题:
In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
(A)psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(B)psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and
(C)psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,
(D)psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,
(E)psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,
解析:(A) 中的declaring 使主句无谓语动词,错。
(B) 中的declaring 使主句无谓语动词,错。such…like 不符合表达习惯,应为such…as。
fail in doing 不符合表达习惯,应为fail to do。and 前后分词和句子无法对称,错。
同时,漏去since,则改变原文的因果关系。
(C) 中的since 后应该是句子,having failed 分词错。
(D) 中的such…like,fail in doing 错。且时态前后不一致,fail 应用过去式failed。
(E) 为正确答案。
点评:此题考了正确性表达中的主句从句的主谓完整,动词时态前后一致,固定搭配such as 和fail to do,and 连词前后应该平行一致。同时也考了有效性表达,忠实原文的因果关系。
翻译:在回看了20 世纪40 年代所作的2000 份人类行为的研究之后,2 个瑞士心理学家指出,由于大多数这些研究未能控制变量,比如社会阶层和家庭大小,因此这些研究都不靠谱。
我们来看第2 题:
Manufacturers rate batteries in watt-hours; if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer the battery can be expected to last.
(A)if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer
(B)rating the watt-hour higher, it is that much longer
(C)the higher the watt-hour rating, the longer
(D)the higher the watt-hour rating, it is that much longer that
(E)when the watt-hour rating is higher, the longer it is
解析: (A) 中的语法虽然没错,但是意思错误,变成“制造商评估更高,那么电池持续能力越强,”没有必然因果关系。
(B) 不符合固定句式The more… the more…。
(C) 为正确答案。
(D)(E) 都不符合固定句式,故错。
点评:此题考了正确性表达中的正确意思表达(consistent expression),也考了固定句式The more…the more 结构。
翻译:制造商以瓦- 时来评价电池,假如评价的瓦- 时越高,那么电池预期的续航时间就越长。
我们来看第4 题:
At the end of the 1930s, Duke Ellington was looking for a composer to assist him—someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish the many pieces he had started but never completed.
(A)someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish
(B)someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but also mirror his eccentric writing style in order to finish
(C)someone who not only could arrange music for his successful big band, but also to mirror his eccentric writing style in finishing
(D)that being someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style for finishing
(E)being someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirror his eccentric writing style as well, finishing
解析:(A) 中的连词结构not only…but also…不完整,错。
(B) 为正确答案。连词结构not only…but also… 前后arrange 和mirror 动词对称。
(C) 中的not only 后的could 和but also 后的不定式to mirror 不对称,错。in finishing 不能表达目的,所以改变了原文的意思。
(D) 中的连词结构not only … but also… 不完整,错。arrange 和分词mirroring 不对称。
that 关系代词错误,应该用who。being 笨拙。而且在措词上for finishing 没有in order to finish 来得好。动词优于分词动名词。
(E) 中的连词结构not only…but also…不完整,错。前后who could 和mirror 不对称。 being 笨拙。
点评:此题考了正确性表达中的连词结构not only…but also…必须完整,平行对称结构。定语从句中的关系代词指代。同时也考了有效性表达中的忠于原文意思,表示目的。以及措词being 笨拙,表示目的in order to do 在措词上优于for doing。
翻译:在20 世纪30 年代的晚期,公爵Ellington 正在找一个作曲家来帮忙,这个作曲家不仅能够为他成功的大乐队编排音乐,而且能够反映他古怪的作曲风格,目的是为了完成他许多已经开始写但并未完成的作品。
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