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AP美国历史提升技巧之第一部分

来源:朗阁教育19-01-02编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

在分析AP美国历史的提升技巧之前,必须先明确考试结构,即AP美国历史的内容被划分为九个不同的时期,如下表所示。

  AP美国历史提升技巧之第一部分

  一、关于选择题

  在分析AP美国历史的提升技巧之前,必须先明确考试结构,即AP美国历史的内容被划分为九个不同的时期,如下表所示。

  第一个时期“1491-1607”,占考试结构的5%,经过简单的计算,55道题乘以5%,即2.75道,所以这部分内容在考试中也就是2道或者3道选择题。同理,我们可以预估出最后一个时期“1980年至今”,大概也会有2~3道考题。第六、第七和第八个时期最重要,试题数大致为25道左右,是考试最核心的部分。

  选择题1到选择题18,一般会以时间序列出现,即第1题是考查最早的时期,第18题考查最近的时期,考生做起来相对比较舒服,不用跨越性地思考。到18题之后,选择题会开始“重置”,即第19题又从最早的历史时期开始,一般按时间顺序依次考查,以18道题为一周期,直到55题为止。

  AP美国历史选择题部分难度非常大,直接性和记忆性问题一般不会出现,如:

  【例题1】In what year was the Federal Reserve System created?

  A.1932

  B.1816

  C.1933

  D.1913

  答案为D。这种题目AP美国历史一般不会出现,首先是问法太过直接,其次就是难度不大,背过就能拿分。

  【例题2】 Name the original thirteen colonies

  A New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, New Jersey.

  B. West Virginia, New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.

  C. Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.

  D. New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Florida, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.

  答案为A。这种考题也不会考。虽说这种题目的难度比例题1增大了些,但它考核的主要还是背诵和记忆,但记忆力如何并不是AP美国历史考试所关注的。AP美国历史考试关注的是深入思考型问题。

  【例题3】When the new states of Tennessee and Kentucky first joined the Union during the Washington administration, what was their easiest method of shipping crops to market?

  A. On the new railroad connection between New York City and Chicago.

  B. By barge to Lake Erie and then along the St Lawrence Seaway.

  C By boat down the Ohio river.

  D Overland along the direct route provided by the National Road.

  答案为C。

  通过例题3可以看出,AP美国历史的选择题难度还是比较大的,但是考生不用过于担心。首先就是谁也没有要求你都答对,55道选择题如果错15道,仍是有机会拿到5分的。一半也还是有可能拿到3分的,当然前提是后面的大题不能答得太差。接下来会介绍一些选择题的提升技巧,可以提高考试成绩。

  二、选择题提升技巧

  (一)迅速答题,不要纠结

  选择题共有55道,却只有50分钟的答题时间,这就意味着每54秒完成一道,不要说中国考生,对母语为英语国家的考生来说都是个不小的挑战。考生一定不要在每道题上过于纠缠,尽量从第1题就迅速做到第55题,中间遇到拿不准的、读不懂的或者根本不会的,做上标记后迅速略过,等到做完第一遍的时候,再回来研究这些对于你自己比较困难的题目。在这个阶段,时间是最重要的,一定要先保证时间,把能做的题目做了,把能拿的分数拿上。

  (二)“When? Who? What?”策略

  第二遍做选择题的时候,面对的都是第一轮略过的较难题目,一般情况就是读不懂题干、选项拿不准或根本不会。而这三种情况又以读不懂题干为最多见。这时就要问自己:When? Who? What? 即时间段是什么?涉及了谁或者那些地区?什么事情?

  如【例题3】的题干:

  When? - Washington administration华盛顿执政时期

  Who? - Tennessean and Kentuckians田纳西人和肯塔基人

  What? - shipping crops to market运输农产品到东部市场

  这样题目的主干就会显现出来,考生的理解就会更清晰。就算还是不能选出正确答案,至少也可排除一到两个错误的答案。比如A就可以排除:铁路大规模兴建是在19世纪中晚期,而华盛顿执政时期是在18世纪末,年代对不上,可以排除。还有D也一样:美国公路的大规模建设是出现在20世纪30年代初的罗斯福时期,所以也不能选。经过这样的分析,考生可以大幅度地提高正确率。

  (三)结合所学,排除错误选项

  如果在第二轮中,部分选择题还是太难了,此时一定要结合所学,尽可能多地排除错误选项,在剩余选项中大胆地去猜,不要影响心情。猜在AP美国历史考试中是最正常不过的事情,排除法也是AP选择题答题的核心策略。每道题分值一样,与其花费时间在模棱两可的题目上面,不如把时间花在自己有把握的题目上。永远记住:不需要答对所有的题目,只要答对35~45道,你就有很大机会拿到4分甚至5分。

  (四)轻易不要修改答案

  选择题的答案一旦选出,除非特别肯定是错误的,一般不要修改已选出的答案,即使这个答案是根据排除法猜出来的。根据统计,第一次选出来的答案正确率都非常高,而所谓的修改往往其结果就是原本正确的答案被改成了错误的。所以考生要相信自己的直觉。

  (五)不要放弃图表题、图画题和材料题

  AP美国历史考试中会出现一定数量的图表题、图画题和材料题,很多中国考生因为觉得自己文化背景不同等因素,对此非常恐惧,其实大可不必。这些题其实大大有利于考生。因为这时考生的工作其实只是通过检视图表和图画得出答案,这些题的难度比一般题目还要低一些。一定要静下心来,因为答案就在你的面前,你需要作答的全部信息都在给你的材料中。

  三、练习题及答案

  1. The American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers organized

  A. skilled workers in craft unions in order to achieve economic gains.

  B. all industrial and agricultural workers in “one big union”.

  C. workers and intellectuals into a labor party for political action.

  D. workers into a fraternal organization to provide unemployment and old age benefit.

  本题难度不大,如果考生基础扎实,可轻易得出正确答案A。如果觉得困难,审题后采先用“When? Who? What?”来简化题干难度。通过简化发现Who-塞缪尔·冈珀斯,What-美国劳工联合会,进一步分析出When-19世纪末至20世纪初。再采取排除法,B选项“把所有人和农民并入一个大的联盟”,但美国劳工联合会和农民没有什么关系,可排除。C选项也是错误选项,美国工人们也没有尝试过和知识分子一起合作,他们甚至不把知识分子作为工人阶级的一员。至于D选项,时间上对不上,那时关于这种失业和退休福利根本就是不敢想的事情,直到几十年后的罗斯福新政才开始提供失业津贴和老年补助。所以经过分析和排除后,题目的正确选项为A。

  2. In the period 1890-1915, all of the following were generally true about African Americans Except

  A. Voting rights previously gained were denied through changes in state laws and constitutions.

  B. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) endorsed the Back-to-Africa movement.

  C. Numerous African Americans were lynched, and mob attacks on African American individuals occurred in both the North and the South.

  D. African Americans from the rural South migrated to both southern and northern cities.

  本题正确答案为B。审题后采先用“When? Who? What?”来简化题干难度,再用排除法来解决。A选项说黑人们之前获得的选举权被部分州宪法和州法案再次剥夺了,这个说法是对的。由于南方在内战中的失败,南方各州不得不服从联邦,给予黑人选举权,但他们内心是不愿意的,所以当北方驻南方的军队撤走后,他们想尽方法剥夺了黑人的选举权,如设置财产限制或者学历限制。所以该选项的说法是正确的,可以排除。C选项也可以排除,因为此时的南方确实存在着私刑,而且南部很多州都颁布了吉姆·克劳法,实行黑白隔离制度,黑人因此也时常暴乱。进一步可以排除D,正是由于黑人在南部其实又被作为奴隶对待,所以形成了黑人移民潮,大批黑人迁移到北部的城市中。经过排除,正确选项为B。B选项前半句是对的,当时黑人们确实成立了全国有色人种促进协会,但这个协会一直在致力于追求达到黑人和白人同等的权利,从来没提过把黑人送回非洲老家,所以B选项为正确选项。

  3. Joseph McCarthy's investigative tactics found support among many Americans because

  A. evidence substantiated his charges against the army.

  B. there was widespread fear of communist infiltration of the United States.

  C. both Truman and Eisenhower supported him.

  D. he correctly identified numerous communists working in the State Department.

  本题正确选项为B。还是先用“When? Who? What?”来分析,When-卡锡主义流行时期,即1950至1954年;Who-麦卡锡;What-得到大众支持。这样题干就会清晰很多。然后用排除法,D选项率先可以排除,因为麦卡锡不停强调手中有一份神秘的名单,但最终也没有拿出来,更就无法准确指证。A选项也可以排除,因为他指证军方根本就没什么证据,反而最后被军方通过听证会使其声誉扫地。然后再排除C。考生如果不清楚杜鲁门对麦卡锡的态度也没有关系,但艾森豪威尔对麦卡锡的态度则应该掌握,即艾森豪威尔对麦卡锡极其反感,正是他授意要阻止这个极端的右翼分子,所以排除C。B为正确选项,因为1950至1954年美苏极端对立,对共产主义思想的恐惧侵袭了每个美国普通公众,也是麦卡锡主义得到流行和支持的根本原因。

  四、选择题出题规律及总结

  1、牢记先用“When? Who? What?”分析,再用排除法的答题策略。

  2、纯粹记忆性的题目及过于细节化的题目不会出现,即“这事儿是在哪年发生的”不会考,“这事儿发生在哪个城镇”不会考,“某法案具体有几条,第N条的具体内容是什么”不会考,“战争的具体过程”不会考。

  3、哥伦布之前的时代和里根时期之后的内容考得非常少。

  4、考题以从古至今的顺序进行排列,基本上每18题有一个循环。

  5、难度从总体上讲有逐题递进的趋势,前面部分题目难度要低于后面部分题目的难度。

  6、知识点极其分散,几乎没有两道选择题会考核同一个知识点,55道选择题涉及的知识点在50个以上。

  7、强调整体性和总体趋势。如练习题第3题,考的是麦卡锡主义,但如果仅仅了解麦卡锡主义还真不见得答得对,还必须要知道杜鲁门和艾森豪威尔对麦卡锡的看法和态度才能得出最后答案。

  8、问题多集中在以下话题,即多元化问题、身份认同问题、美国文化问题、人口变化问题、经济转型问题、环境问题、全球化问题、政治和公民问题、改革问题、宗教问题、战争和外交问题等。

  五、关于简答题

  选择题之后是四道简答题,每题会有(a),(b),(c)三小问,共12小问,完成时间为50分钟,占总分数的20%。需要格外提醒考生的是,这部分的考核难点不是题目本身的难度,而是时间非常紧张,平均4分钟多一点儿就要答完一小问。还有一点需要提醒考生,不要忘记简答题虽然印在了选择题之后,但同属第一部分,如果有把握,完全可以先做简答题,再带着相对轻松的心态回去做选择题。

  典型的简答题会以如下的介绍开始:

  Part B: Short-Answer Questions

  There are four short-answer questions on the exam. The following questions are meant to illustrate the various types of these questions. Note that the short-answer questions do not require students to develop and support a thesis statement

  考生要格外留意题目描述的后半部分,即考生回答简答题目时只需要陈述事实,回答问题即可,不需要树立自己的论点,也不需要考生围绕论点进行深入的讨论。简答题考核的是考生的知识层次,即这事儿你知不知道,而更深度的理解和运用不是简答题所关心的,会放在第二部分的材料题和自由作答题中考核考生。

  介绍之后,则是正式的题目部分。样题如下:

  Answer a, b, and c

  a) Explains ONE important similarity between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England from 1607 to 1754

  (b)Explains ONE important difference between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England in the period from 1607 to 1754

  c) Explains ONE factor that accounts for the difference indicated in(b)

  简答题可出题的知识点非常多,几乎不会重复,但它也有自己的规律,即简答题特别钟爱考察历史事件的“原因”、“趋势”、“相同和不同”及“评价”。

  1、所谓“原因”题,即事件为什么在特定的时间点或者地区或特定的人群中发生或出现,如上题(c)问就是典型的原因题。

  2、“趋势”题则强调考核事件特征或者特定人群特征是否随着时间的变化而变化,如美国的州权是否随着联邦政府的成立而越来越小?内战前的黑人和内战后的黑人地位是否相同?等等。

  3、“相同和不同”题则强调在一个时间段内事件、地区、人物的异同。如上题的(a)、(b)问就是典型的例子,类似的还有“马丁·路德·金和马尔科姆·埃克斯在黑人运动中的相同和不同?”“威廉·布莱恩和威廉·麦克金利双方在经济政策上的看法有何不同?”等等。

  4、评价”题则常会考核事件或法案在此后的影响,对这种考题,考生千万不要忘记应该从积极和消极两个方面来说明,即又要谈及它的进步性,也要谈及它的“危害”、“局限”和“不足”。

  以上四类是AP美国历史简答题中最爱出题的角度,考生需要格外留心。

  六、简答题评分规则

  简答题每道题都会以0~3的采分点来打分,四道题目一共是12分,0~3分的打分依据如下:

  0~3 points

  Score 3: Response accomplishes all three tasks set by the question

  Score 2: Response accomplishes two of the task set by the question

  Score 1: Response accomplishes one of the task set by the question

  Score 0: Response accomplishes none of the task set by the question

  每道题的三小问题都回答到了所问的知识点,那么给3分;如果三小问中有两小问回答到了,则给2分;如果只有一小问答对了,就给1分;三问都没有答对,或者干脆就没写,得0分。另外,考生必须要用完整的句子作答,即单词、短语、缩略语以及结构图之类的答法是不给分的。

  七、简答题备考技巧

  AP美国历史的简答题其实难度普遍不大,但正因如此,考生答题的时候更需要关注以下几点,这样才能避免无谓的失分。

  (一)审清条件限制

  每道简答题甚至其中的每一个小问题都会有它的限制条件,考生必须严格按照条件答题,要不一分没有。常见的限制条件经常有:时间限制、地区限制、人物限制、数量限制、领域限制等。

  比如时间方面的限制,常见的方式有四种:

  第一种是明确限制时间范围,比如20世纪七八十年代。

  第二种是有上限,但是没有下限,如“南北战争之前“、”民权运动之前”等。

  第三种就是有下限,但是没有上限,如“自《汤姆叔叔的小屋》出版之后”、“朝鲜战争之后”。

  第四种就是上下限都有,但不明确给出,如“尤利西斯·格兰特时期”、“大萧条时期”等。

  对地区和人物的限制相信考生比较好理解,即要你说明南部黑人的状况,你别说成北部城市的黑人工人;让你说亚历山大·汉密尔顿的政策,你别说成了詹姆斯·麦迪逊的政策。数量限制也不难理解,即:让你答两点,你不要只答一点。领域限制则比较复杂,经常会涉及文化方面的限制、经济方面的限制、军事方面的限制、外交方面的限制、内政方面的限制、思想方面的限制等。

  所以考生拿到题目的第一件事就是要看出题目的限制条件在哪里,在限制的范围内答题,如果能够做到这一点,就已经成功一半了。

  【例题1】 Answer A,B,and C

  (A) Explains ONE important similarity between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England from 1607 to 1754.

  (B) Explains ONE important difference between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England in the period from 1607 to 1754.

  (C) Explains ONE factor that accounts for the difference indicated in(b).

  通过条件限制分析,我们可以看出,时间限制在1607到1754年间,地点限制在切萨皮克殖民地和新英格兰殖民地,数量限制在一点相同和一点不同,领域限制没有。这些限制就像一个界限,把我们的答案限定在这个范围之内。

  【例题2】 Answer A,B,and C

  (A) Briefly explain ONE example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the period 1492 to 1700.

  (B) Briefly explain a SECOND example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the same period.

  (C) Briefly explain ONE example of how Native American societies resisted change brought by contact with Europeans in the same period.

  通过简单分析,答案限定的时间为1492至1700年,地点限制在东北部的美国,数量限制:(A)和(C)为1个例子,(B)小问为2个例子。领域限制为对印第安人社的改变。

  所以做题之前,即使时间再紧张,我们也必须仔细审题,把限制条件弄清楚、弄准确。因为限制确定得过于“小”,会导致答案要点不全而丢分。相反,如果限制过“大,就会多做许多无用功,浪费大量宝贵的考试时间,关键是还会冲淡问题的主题,拉低了得分。

  (二)找齐材料

  当我们把限制条件弄清楚之后,AP美国历史考生应该开始迅速地在自己的记忆库中搜寻任何与题目相关的材料和史实,开始头脑风暴,在限制范围内的材料要尽可能多地想出来,争取不漏过任何内容。只有把材料找全面,才能保证题目答得上,答得全面,不丢分。我们甚至可以得出这样的结论:对简答题所需材料搜集的准确、齐全与否,决定着考生简答题部分的最终得分。但这一部分的工作还需要在全面搜索的基础上注意时间,所以最好的方式就是作纲要性的、框架性的回忆,在落笔的时候再给予补充。

  【例题1】 Answer A,B,and C

  (A) Explains ONE important similarity between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England from 1607 to 1754.

  (B) Explains ONE important difference between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England in the period from 1607 to 1754.

  (C) Explains ONE factor that accounts for the difference indicated in(b).

  在分析完限制之后,准备回答(A)小问,即尽可能多地考虑切萨皮克殖民的和新英格兰殖民在限制时间段内的相同点。第一,都以农业为基础;第二,在殖民地生存前期都得到了印第安人的帮助;第三,稳定之后都因为土地及文化等原因和印第安人发生了冲突。第四,都依赖于来自欧洲的雇佣劳工和奴隶耕种;第五,都依赖和宗主国即英国之间的贸易;第六,在期间内都一直在吸引着新移民的到来。弄清楚这些以后,就可以用大纲的方式写了,即:

  ·Agricultural but diversified economies by 1754

  ·Initial tolerance for survival between American Indians and British colonist

  ·Wars between colonists and American Indians due to land and cultural conflicts

  ·Indentured servitude and slavery as forms of labor

  ·Dependence on trade from and to Britain

  ·Motivations for immigration

  类似地,我们把开始收集(B)问的材料,并写成大纲形式:

  ·Greater reliance on slavery in the Chesapeake

  ·Greater disparity in wealth between classes in the Chesapeake

  ·Large vs small farms

  ·Higher concentration of population density in New England

  ·New England founded more for religious toleration than the Chesapeake

  ·Settlement in New England more family oriented than in the Chesapeake

  ·Powhatan Wars/Bacon's rebellion vs. Pequot wars/King Philip's War

  类似地,我们把开始收集(C)问的材料,并写成大纲形式:

  ·Greater reliance on slavery in Chesapeake due to labor intensive agriculture demands.

  ·Greater disparity in wealth in Chesapeake due to unequal land distribution.

  ·Natural resources and individual motives led to different economic systems.

  ·Natural resources and individual motives led to different levels of population density.

  ·Religious persecution and intolerance by the Anglican Church in England forced Puritans.

  ·Land and cultural differences led to conflicts with American Indians.

  【例题2】Answer A,B,and C.

  (A) Briefly explain ONE example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the period 1492 to 1700.

  (B) Briefly explain a SECOND example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the same period。

  (C) Briefly explain ONE example of how Native American societies resisted change brought by contact with Europeans in the same period.

  这道问题:在殖民早期,欧洲人给北美原住民印第安人造成了什么样的社会变化和影响?题目只要求回答一个变化,考生照样可以进行头脑风暴,尽可能多地想出符合限定条件的答案,最终选择一个最容易深入和展开的作为答案。该题目不难,印第安社会显著的变化可以集中在以下范围进行讨论,如欧洲的传染病导致印第安人口的骤降,印第安人被白人控制和奴役,传统的狩猎区不断被白人殖民者占领,导致部落经济结构的改变,印第安人和欧洲人之间的通婚等。进一步再把所涉及的内容以大纲形式列出:

  ·Native American population declined as a result of disease and warfare.

  ·Many Native Americans were enslaved and/or subjected to forced labor.

  ·Traditional tribal economies changed as a result of increased trade with Europeans.

  ·Native Americans and Europeans began to intermarry in Spanish and French colonies, producing racially mixed populations and caste systems.

  类似地,我们还可以继续列出(B)问的内容:

  ·The introduction of new crops and livestock into Native American societies changed settlement patterns.

  ·Domestic animals brought by Europeans changed the environment and destroyed Native American crops.

  ·Views on gender roles, family, and property changed as a result of European influence.

  ·The introduction of guns, other weapons, and alcohol stimulated cultural and demographic changes in some Native American societies.

  ·Alliances with European nations changed politics and policies within and among tribes

  能走到这一步考生就会很踏实了,因为它几乎确保了最终的成功。即使没有下一步的充实内容,就这么把提纲交上去,都能得到多半的分数。如果考生完成这一步比较困难的话,可能两种情况:一种情况是需要多练习,习惯这种做题方式;还有一种则是基础知识不扎实,想不出相关史实,那么就需要去进一步熟悉和巩固考点。

  (三)理清思路,把框架变成文章

  在完成上述步骤,得出框架之后,还需要总体规划一下,把提纲落实为阅卷官所要求的文章。这时,我们要再次阅读题目,确定审题无误,然后开始筛选大纲要点,确定:先答什么?再答什么?最后答什么?相关知识点如何组合?等等。最后再从选定的材料中精选出与题目最为相关和贴切的内容,加以语言上的润色和修饰,组成答案。如:

  (A)Explains ONE important similarity between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England from 1607 to 1754

  Answer: The British colonies in the Chesapeake region and those in the New England region were similar because the colonists that settled there were looking for new opportunities. They either had been oppressed or were unable to economically thrive in England. Whether they were looking for land available land available for large farms, religious freedom, or trading and merchant opportunities, the colonists of both regions were looking for a new start in the New World. They were escaping issued they had encountered in England, which allowed for all colonists to be similar.

  同样地,我们还可以把(B)和(C)问整理出来:

  (B)Explains ONE important difference between the British colonies in the Chesapeake region and the British colonies in New England in the period from 1607 to 1754.

  Answer: As mentioned before, the opportunities that the colonists in the New England colonies and in the Chesapeake region colonies were different. Even though they were searching for new opportunities, the opportunities they were searching for were very different and played in important role in colonies' ideologies. The New England colonies were formed in hope to find religious freedom. The original settlers were the puritans who were escaping persecution from the Church of England, and the wanted to purify the religion. In contrast, colonists in the Chesapeake region wanted land opportunities. They hoped to supply goods to England which increased English economy. The Northern colonies were more independent minded and were seeking more freedom than the southern colonists were.

  (C)Briefly explain ONE example of how Native American societies resisted change brought by contact with Europeans in the same period.

  Answer: A factor that account for these differences was the way the colonists were treated in England before their move. The colonists in New England were escaping poor treatment and oppression. This made them seek more from the New World for personal gain and did not hold as much loyalty to England as the southern colonists did. Southern colonists went to the New World often by companies promising land. For example, the Virginia Company promised 50 acres of land to every person paying to go to the New World. This meant that they still favorably liked the English and were not leaving England to escape oppression. They saw this voyage as a way the English government was helping them became more stable.


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